What is Capacitor?
A capacitor is a device used to store the charges. It consists of two conducting plates which are separated by the dielectric material.
When a capacitor is connected to a battery, the plates are connected to two different terminals. The electrons are attracted from one plate to another plate; the battery pushes the electrons. The Dielectric does not allow the electrons from one plate to another plate; thus, they cannot cross the barrier.
Over some period, one plate is enriched in electrons (Negative plate), and one plate is in shortage of electrons (positive plate). A potential difference is created across the plates.
Energy is stored in the capacitor in the form of an electrostatic charge; you can use it whenever you need it.
The ability of a capacitor to store the charge is known as capacitance; the following factors can affect the capacitance of a capacitor.
(1) Area of plates:
The larger the plates, the more charges will accumulate. So the area is directly proportional to the capacitance.
(2) Distance between plates:
If the space between plates is greater, the capacitance will be less, and if the space between plates is lesser, the capacitance will be larger.
(3) Dielectric medium:
A dielectric with greater permittivity gives you more capacitance, and a dielectric with less permittivity gives you less capacitance.
How to charge a capacitor?
A capacitor stores the charges in the unit of a farad (f). A typical capacitor stores the capacitance in the range of Nano farads to microfarads. To charge a capacitor, you need a DC voltage source and a capacitor.
When a capacitor is connected to a DC source battery, it will start charging the capacitor and charge up to the input voltage of the source. For example, if a capacitor is connected to a 12V battery, it will charge 12 volts. Similarly, it will increase the capacitance according to the DC source provided.
How to connect a DC battery to a capacitor?
The capacitor has two leads, a shorter lead (negative) and a longer lead (positive). Connect the positive side to the longer lead and the negative side to the shorter lead.
One thing that should be kept in mind is that capacitor to a voltage above its voltage rating can finish your capacitor. A resistor is used in series with voltage source and capacitor to decrease the amount of current that flows through the capacitor not to damage the capacitor.
We have shown you the most straightforward way that how to charge a capacitor. Click on how to discharge a capacitor to learn about the valuable stuff of capacitors.